# THREE-DIMENSIONAL CFD MODELING OF TiO2/R134a NANOREFRIGERANT

## Main Article Content

## Abstract

In this study, numerical investigations were carried out for R134a based TiO_{2} nanorefrigerants. Forced laminar flow and heat transfer of nanorefrigerants in a horizontal smooth circular cross-sectioned duct were investigated under steady-state condition. The nanorefrigerants consist of TiO2 nanoparticles suspended in R134a as a base fluid with four particle volume fractions of 0.8, 2.0 and 4.0%. Numerical studies were performed under laminar flow conditions where Reynolds numbers range from 8×102 to 2.2×10^{3}. Flow is flowing in the duct with hydrodynamically and thermally developing (simultaneously developing flow) condition. The uniform surface heat flux with uniform peripheral wall heat flux (H2) boundary condition was applied on the duct wall. Commercial CFD software, Ansys Fluent 14.5, was used to carry out the numerical study. Effect of nanoparticle volume fraction on the average convective heat transfer coefficient and average Darcy friction factor were analyzed. It is obtained in this study that increasing nanoparticle volume fraction of nanorefrigerant increases the convective heat transfer in the duct; however, increasing nanoparticle volume fraction does not influence the pressure drop in the duct. The velocity and temperature distribution in the duct for different Reynolds numbers and nanoparticle volume fractions were presented.

## Article Details

**Thermal Science**, [S.l.], mar. 2017. ISSN 2334-7163. Available at: <http://thermal-science.tech/journal/index.php/thsci/article/view/2072>. Date accessed: 26 sep. 2017. doi: https://doi.org/10.2298/TSCI140425002A.

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Accepted 2017-03-13

Published 2017-03-13

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