THERMOMAGNETIC CONVECTION OF A MAGNETIC NANOFLUID INFLUENCED BY A MAGNETIC FIELD

Main Article Content

Ali BOUHROUR Djamel KALACHE

Abstract

We present a numerical study of thermomagnetic convection in a differentially heated cavity. The magnetic nanofluid (ferrofluid) is subjected to a uniform magnetic gradient oriented at an angle j with respect to the thermal gradient. The motivation for this work stems largely from a desire to extent preexisting works focused on horizontal and vertical orientations j=0°, 90°,180° and 270°. Our main goal is to get data on the flow and heat transfer for any orientation in the entire range 0-360°. The generalized problem lends itself to the investigation of orientations that give maximum heat transfer. It is found that (1) At a given magneto-gravitational coupling number N, orientations 0°, 90° and 270°, for which magnetization gradient is unstable, are not the optimum ones (2) For 0≺N≼1, heat transfer reaches a maximum between 270° and 360° (3) For N≻1, a second maximum occur between 0° and 90° owing to reverse flow phenomenon (4) At strong magnetic gradients, the two heat transfer peaks take the same value (5) Optimization parameter w, reflecting the strongest magnetic effect, grows with N. Unlike the gravity, magnetic gradient may supply various strengths and spatial configurations, which makes thermomagnetic convection more controllable. Also, the magnetic mechanism is a viable alternative for the gravity one in microgravity, where thermogravitational convection ceases to be efficient.

Article Details

How to Cite
BOUHROUR, Ali; KALACHE, Djamel. THERMOMAGNETIC CONVECTION OF A MAGNETIC NANOFLUID INFLUENCED BY A MAGNETIC FIELD. Thermal Science, [S.l.], mar. 2017. ISSN 2334-7163. Available at: <http://thermal-science.tech/journal/index.php/thsci/article/view/2102>. Date accessed: 14 dec. 2017. doi: https://doi.org/10.2298/TSCI141128155B.
Section
Articles
Received 2017-03-02
Accepted 2017-03-13
Published 2017-03-13

References

[1] Papell, S.S., Low Viscosity Magnetic Fluid obtained by the Colloidal Suspension of Magnetic Particles, U.S. patent 3215572, 1965
[2] Berger, P., et al., Preparation and Properties of an Aqueous Ferrofluid, J. Chem. Educ., 76 (1999), 7, pp. 943-948
[3] Vekas, L., Magnetic Nanofluids Properties and Some Applications, Rom. J. Phys., 49 (2004), 9-10, pp. 707-721
[4] Raj, K., Moskowitz, B., Commercial Applications of Ferrofluids, J. Magn. Magn. Mater., 85 (1990), pp. 233-245
[5] Tangthieng , C. , et al., Heat Transfer Enhancement in Ferrofluids Subjected to Steady Magnetic Fields, J. Magn. Magn. Mater., 201 (1999), pp. 252-255
[6] Mukhopadhyay, A., et al., A Scaling Analysis to Characterize Thermomagnetic Convection, Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, 48 (2005), pp. 3485-3492
[7] Finlayson, B.A., Convective Instability of Ferromagnetic Fluids, J. Fluid Mech., 40 (1970), 4, pp. 753-757
[8] Schwab, L., et al., Magnetic Bénard Convection, J. Magn. Magn. Mater., 39 (1983), pp. 113-114
[9] Stiles, P.J., Kagan, M., Thermoconvective Instability of a Horizontal Layer of Ferrofuid in a Strong Magnetic Field, J. Magn. Magn. Mater., 85 (1990), pp.196-198
[10] Rudraiah, N., Sekhar, G.N., Convection in Magnetic Fluids with Internal Heat Source, ASME. J. Heat Transfer, 113 (1991), pp. 122-127
[11] Recktenwald, A., Lücke, M., Thermoconvection in Magnetized Ferrofluids: the Influence of Boundaries with Finite Heat Conductivity, J. Magn. Magn. Mater., 188 (1998), pp. 326-332
[12] Shliomis, M.I., Smorodin, B.I. , Convection Instability of Magnetized Ferrofluids, J. Magn. Magn. Mater., 252 (2002), 1-3, pp. 197-202
[13] Bozhko, A.A., Putin, G.F., Magnetic Action on Convection and Heat Transfer in Ferrofluid, Indian. J. Eng. Mater. Sci., 11 (2004), pp.309-314
[14] Odenbach, S., Völker, T., Thermal Convection in a Ferrofluid Supported by Therrmodiffusion, J. Magn. Magn. Mater., 289 (2005), pp.122-125
[15] Nanjundappa, C.E., Effect of MFD Viscosity on the Onset of Ferromagnetic Fluid Layer Heated from Below and Cooled from Above with Constant Heat Flux, Measurm. Sci. Rev., 9 (2009), 3, pp.75-80
[16] Aggarwal, A.K., Makhija, S., Hall Effect on Thermal Stability of Ferromagnetic Fluid in Porous Medium in the Presence of Horizontal Magnetic Field, Therm. Sci., 18 (Supp.2) (2014), pp. S503-S514
[17] Yamaguchi, H., et al., Natural Convection in a Rectangular Box, J. Magn. Magn. Mater., 201 (1999), 1-3, pp.264-267
[18] Krakov, M.S., Nikiforov, I.V., To the Influence of Uniform Magnetic Field on Thermomagnetic Convection in Square Cavity, J. Magn. Magn. Mater., 252 (2002), 1-3, pp. 209-221
[19] Krakov, M.S. et al., Three-dimensional Thermomagnetic Convection in a Cubic Cavity in the Presence of an External Uniform Magnetic Field, Magnetohydrodynamics, 40 (2004), 3, pp. 285-296
[20] Wen, C.Y., et al., Flow Visualization of Natural Convection of Magnetic Fluid in a Rectangular Hele-Shaw Cell, J. Magn. Magn. Mater., 252 (2002), 1-3, pp. 206-208
[21] Wen, C.Y. , Su, W.P., Natural Convection of Magnetic Fluid in a Rectangular Hele-Shaw cell, J. Magn. Magn. Mater., 289 (2005), pp. 299-302
[22] Krakov , M.S., et al., Influence of the Uniform Magnetic Field on Natural Convection in Cubic Enclosure: Experiment and Numerical Simulation, J. Magn. Magn. Mater., 289 (2005), pp. 272-274
[23] Yamaguchi, H., et al., Thermomagnetic Natural Convection of Thermo-Sensitive Magnetic Fluids in Cubic Cavity with Heat Generating Object inside, J. Magn. Magn. Mater., 322 (2010), pp. 698-704
[24] Berkovsky, B.M. et al., Heat Transfer across Vertical Ferrofluid Layers, Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, 19 (1976), pp. 981-986
[25] Kikura, H., et al., Natural Convection of a Magnetic Fluid in a Cubic Enclosure, J.Magn.Magn.Mater., 122 (1993), pp.315- 318
[26] Sawada, T., et al., Visualization of Wall Temperature Distribution caused by Natural Convection of Magnetic Fluids in a Cubic Enclosure, Int. J. Appl. Electromagn.Mater., 4 (1994), pp. 329-335
[27] Bouhrour, A., Kalache, D., Natural Convection in a Ferroliquid, Book of abstracts, 9th International Conference on Magnetic Fluids, Bremen, Germany, 2001
[28] Snyder, S. M., et al., Finite Element Model of Magnetoconvection of a Ferrofluid, J. Magn. Magn. Mater., 262 (2003), pp. 269-279
[29] Ganguly, R., et al., Thermomagnetic Convection in a Square Enclosure using a Line Dipole, Phys. Fluids, 16 (2004), 7, pp. 2228-2236
[30] Jue, T.C., Analysis of Combined Thermal and Magnetic Convection Ferrofluid Flow in a Cavity, Int. Commun. Heat and Mass Transfer, 33 (2006), pp. 846-852
[31] Zablockis, D., et al., Numerical Investigation of Thermomagnetic Convection in Heated Cylindrical under the Magnetic Field of a Solenoid, J. Phys. Condens. Matter., 20 (2008), pp. 301-308
[32] Contijo, R.G., Cunha, F.R., Experimental Investigation of Thermomagnetic Convection inside Cavities, J. Nanosci. Nanotec., 12 (2012), 12, pp. 9198-9207
[33] Neuringer, J.L., Rosenweig, R.E., Ferrohydrodynamics, Phys. Fluids, 7 (1964), 12, pp. 1927-1937
[34] Rosenweig, R.E., et al., Viscosity of Magnetic Fluid in a Magnetic Field, J. Colloid. Interf. Sci., 29 (1969), 4, pp. 680-686
[35] Rosenweig, R.E., Magnetic Fluids, in: Ferrohydrodynamics, Cambridge University Press, 1985, pp. 33-73
[36] Bashtovoi, V.G., et al., Thermomechanics Equations for Magnetic Fluids7 of Equilibrium Magnetization, in: Introduction to Thermomechanics of Magnetic Fluids, Berkovsky (Ed.), NY, 1988, pp. 17-42
[37] Parekh, K., et al., Magnetocaloric Effect in Temperature Sensitive Magnetic Fluids, Bul.Mater.Sci., 23 (2000), pp.91-95
[38] Li, Q., et al., Investigation on Operational Characteristics of Miniature Automatic Cooling Device, Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, 51 (2008), pp. 5033-5038
[39] Sustov, A.S., Thermomagnetic Convection in a Vertical Layer of Ferromagnetic Fluid, Phys. Fluids, 20 (2008), pp.1-18
[40] Engler, H., et al., Hindrance of Thermomagnetic Convection by the Magnetoviscous Effect, Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, 60 (2013), pp. 499-504
[41] Jordan, P.C., Association Phenomena in a Ferromagnetic Colloid, Molecular Physics, 25 (1973), 4, pp. 961-973
[42] Shliomis, M.I., Raikher, Y.L., Experimental Investigation on Magnetic Fluids, IEEE Transactions on Magnetics, 16 (1980), 2, pp. 237-250.
[43] McTague, J.P., Magnetoviscous Effect in Magnetic Colloids, J. Chem. Physics, 51 (1969), pp.133-136
[44] Hamedani, H.M., Davis, L.R., An experimental Investigation of the Properties of Magnetic Fluid in Thermal Rejection Applications, Proceeding of Intersociety Energy Conversion Engineering Conference, New York, 1988, pp.359-364
[45] Li, Q., et al., Experimental Investigation on Transport Properties of Magnetic Fluids, Exp. Ther. Fluids. Sci., 30 (2002), pp.109-116
[46] De Risi, A., et al., High Efficiency Nanofluid Cooling System for Wind Turbines, Therm. Sci., 18 (2014), 2, pp.543-554
[47] Kronkains, G., Measurement of Thermal and Electrical Conductivities of a Ferrifluid in a Magnetic Field, Magnitnaya Gidrodinamica, 3 (1977), pp. 138-140
[48] Philip, J., et al., Evidence of Enhanced Thermal Conductivity through Percolating Structures in Nanofluids, Nanotechnology, 19 (2008), 305706
[49] Nukirikiyimfura, I., et al., Effect of Chain-like Magnetite Nanoparticle Aggregates on Thermal Conductivity of Magnetic Nanofluid in Magnetic Field, Exp. Therm. Fluid Sci., 44 (2013), pp. 607-612,
[50] Fu, H.L., Gao, L., Theory for Anisotropic Thermal Conductivity of Magnetic Nanofluids, Phys. Letters A, 375 (2011), pp. 3588-3592
[51] Krichler, M., Odenbach, S., Thermal Conductivity Measurements on Ferrofluids with Special Reference to Measuring Arrangement, J. Magn. Magn. Mater., 326 (2013), pp. 85-90.
[52] Blums, E., Heat and Mass Transfer phenomena, J. Magn. Magn. Mater., 252 (2002), 1-3, pp.189-193
[53] Bahiraei, M., Hangi, M., Flow and Heat Transfer Characteristics of a Magnetic Nanofluids: A review, J. Magn. Magn. Mater., 374 (2015), pp. 125-138
[54] Patankar, S.V., Numerical Heat Transfer and Fluid Flow, Hemisphere, Washington D.C. USA, 1980
[55] Davis, G. D.V., Natural Convection of Air in Square Cavity a Benchmark Numerical Solution, Int. J. Num. Methods Fluids, 3 (1983), pp. 249-269
[56] Odenbach, S., Microgravity Experiments on Thermomagnetic Convection in Magnetic Fluid, J. Magn. Magn. Mater., 149 (1995), pp. 55-157
[57] Lankhorst, A.M., Laminar and Turbulent Natural Convection in Cavities. Numerical Modeling and Experimental Validation, Ph.D. Thesis, Technical University, Delt, 1991
[58] Sawada, T., et al., Natural Convection of a Magnetic Fluid in Concentric Horizontal Annuli in Non uniform Magnetic Fields, Exp. Therm. Fluid. Sci., 7 (1993), pp.212-220
[59] Chase, M.W. Jr. et al., JANAF Thermochemical Tables, J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data, 14 (1985), p.1203
[60] Kamiyama, S., et al., On the Flow of a Ferromagnetic Fluid in a Circular Pipe, Bull. JSME, 22 (1979), pp.1205-1211
[61] Poplewell, J., Al-Quenai, A., Thermal Conductivity Measurements on Ferofluids Containing Cobalt and Iron Particles, J. Magn. Magn. Mater., 65 (1987), pp.215-218
[62] Touloukian, Y.S., et al., Thermophysical Properties of Matter, Plenum Press, New York, 1970, Vol.2, pp.154-156