Main Article Content
High-temperature thermal process is a commercial way of regeneration of spent granular activated carbon (GAC). The paper presents results of thermal analysis conducted in order to examine high-temperature regeneration of spent activated carbon, produced from coconut shells, previously used in drinking water treatment. Results of performed thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), derivative thermogravimetric analysis (DTG) and differential thermal analysis (DTA), enabled a number of hypotheses to be made about different phases of activated carbon regeneration, values of characteristic parameters during particular process phases, as well as catalytic impact of inorganic materials on development of regeneration process. Samples of activated carbon were heated up to 1000°C in thermogravimetric analyzer while maintaining adequate oxidizing or reducing conditions. Based on diagrams of thermal analysis for samples of spent activated carbon, temperature intervals of the first intense mass change phase (180-215 °C), maximum of exothermic processes (400-450°C), beginning of the second intense mass change phase (635-700 °C) and maximum endothermic processes (800-815 °C) were determined. Analyzing and comparing the diagrams of thermal analysis for new, previously regenerated and spent activated carbon, hypothesis about physical and chemical transformations of organic and inorganic adsorbate in spent activated carbon are given. Transformation of an organic adsorbate in the pores of activated carbon, results in loss of mass and an exothermic reaction with oxygen in the vapour phase. The reactions of inorganic adsorbate also result the loss of mass of activated carbon during its heating and endothermic reactions of their degradation at high temperatures.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.
Authors retain copyright of the published article and have the right to use the article in the ways permitted to third parties under the - Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs 4.0 International (CC BY-NC-ND) licence. Full bibliographic information (authors, article title, journal title, volume, issue, pages) about the original publication must be provided and a link must be made to the article's DOI.
The authors and third parties who wish use the article in a way not covered by the the -Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs 4.0 International (CC BY-NC-ND) licence must obtain a written consent of the publisher. This license allows others to download the paper and share it with others as long as they credit the journal, but they cannot change it in any way or use it commercially.
Authors grant to the publisher the right to publish the article, to be cited as its original publisher in case of reuse, and to distribute it in all forms and media.
 Moreno-Castilla, C., et al., Thermal regeneration of an activated carbon exhausted with different substituted phenols, Carbon, 33 (1995), 10, pp. 1417-1423
 Humayun, R., et al., Supercritical Fluid Extraction and Temperature-Programmed Desorption of Phenol and Its Oxidative Coupling Products from Activated Carbon, Industrial and Engineering Chemistry Research, 37 (1998), 8, pp. 3089-3097.
 Alvarez, P.M., et al., Comparison between Thermal and Ozone Regenerations of Spent Activated Carbon Exhausted with Phenol, Water Research, 38 (2004), 8, pp. 2155-2165
 Sabio, E., et al., Thermal Regeneration of Activated Carbon Saturated with p-nitrophenol, Carbon, 42 (2004), 11, pp. 2285-2293
 Matatov-Meytal, Y. I., Sheintuch, M., Abatement of Pollutants by Adsorption and Oxidative Catalytic Regeneration, Industrial and Engineering Chemistry Research, 36 (1997), 10, pp. 4374- 4380
 Matatov-Meytal, Y. I., Sheintuch, M., Catalytic Abatement of Water Pollutants, Industrial and Engineering Chemistry Research, 37 (1998), 2, pp. 309-326
 Berčić, G., et al., Desorption of Phenol from Activated Carbon by Hot Water Regeneration. Desorption Isotherms, Industrial and Engineering Chemistry Research, 35 (1996), 12, pp. 4619- 4625
 Goto, M., et al., Adsorption and Desorption of Phenol on Anion-Exchange Resin and Activated Carbon, Environmental Science and Technology, 20 (1986), 5, pp. 463-467
 Humayun, R., et al., Supercritical Fluid Extraction and Temperature-Programmed Desorption of Phenol and Its Oxidative Coupling Products from Activated Carbon, Industrial and Engineering Chemistry Research, 37 (1998), 8, pp. 3089-3097
 Matatov-Meytal, Y. I., et al., Optimal Temperatures for Catalytic Regeneration of Activated Carbon, Carbon, 35 (1997), 10-11, pp. 1527-1531
 Cannon F.S., et al., Effect of Calcium in Field-Spent GACs on Pore Development During Regeneration, Journal of the American Water Works Association (AWWA), 83 (1993), 3, pp. 76- 89
 Mazyck, D.W., Cannon, F.S., Overcoming Calcium Catalysis during the Thermal Reactivation of Granular Activated Carbon. Part I. Steam-Curing Plus Ramped-Temperature N2 Treatment, Carbon, 38 (2000), 13, pp. 1785-1799
 Mazyck, D.W., Cannon, F.S., Overcoming Calcium Catalysis during the Thermal Reactivation of Granular Activated Carbon. Part II. Variation of Steam-Curing Plus Reactivation Parameters, Carbon, 40 (2002), 3, pp. 241-252
 San Miguel, L., et al., The regeneration of field-spent granular activated carbons, Water Research, 35 (2001), 11, pp. 2740-2748
 Sheintuch, M., Matatov-Meytal, Y. I., Comparison of Catalytic Processes with Other Regeneration Methods of Activated Carbon, Catalysis Today, 53 (1999), 1, pp. 73-80