Main Article Content



The essential ideas of investigations of turbulent flow in a straight rectangular duct are chronologically presented. Fundamentally significant experimental and theoretical studies for mathematical modeling and numerical computations of  this flow configuration are analyzed. An important physical aspect of this type of flow is presence of secondary motion in the plane perpendicular to the streamwise direction, which is of interest from both the engineering and the scientific viewpoints. The key facts for a task of turbulence modeling and optimal choice of the turbulence model are obtained through careful examination of physical mechanisms that generate secondary flows.

Article Details

How to Cite
STANKOVIĆ, Branislav D. et al. SPECIFIC ASPECTS OF TURBULENT FLOW IN RECTANGULAR DUCTS. Thermal Science, [S.l.], mar. 2017. ISSN 2334-7163. Available at: <http://thermal-science.tech/journal/index.php/thsci/article/view/2273>. Date accessed: 24 feb. 2018. doi: https://doi.org/10.2298/TSCI160201189S.
Received 2017-03-07
Accepted 2017-03-14
Published 2017-03-14


[1] Rokni, M., et al., Numerical and Experimental Investigation of Turbulent Flow in a Rectangular Duct, Int. J. Numer. Meth. Fluids, 28 (1998), 2, pp. 225-242
[2] Demissie, M., et al., Secondary Circulation in Natural Streams, WRC Research report No. 200, University of Illinois, Water Resources Center, Urbana, Ills., USA, 1986
[3] Daschiel, G. M., et al., Numerical Investigation of Flow through a Triangular Duct: the Coexistence of Laminar and Turbulent Flow, Int. J. Heat Fluid Flow, 41 (2013), June, pp. 27-33
[4] Muzychka, Y. S., Yovanovich, M. M., Laminar Flow Friction and Heat Transfer in Non-Circular Ducts and Channels Part I – Hydrodynamic Problem, Proceedings, Compact heat exchangers: a festschrift on the 60th birthday of Ramesh K. Shah – International Symposium on Compact Heat Exchangers, Grenoble, France, 2002, pp. 123-130
[5] Thangam, S., Speziale, C. G., Non-Newtonian Secondary Flows in Ducts of Rectangular Cross-Section, Acta Mech., 68 (1987), 3-4, pp. 121-138
[6] Hartnett, J. P., Kostić, M., Heat Transfer to Newtonian and Non-Newtonian Fluids in Rectangular Ducts, Adv. Heat Transfer, 19 (1989), C, pp. 247-356
[7] Siginer, D. A., Developments in the Flow of Complex Fluids in Tubes, Springer International Publishing, Cham, Switzerland, 2015
[8] Johnston, J. P., Internal Flows, in: Turbulence (Ed. P. Bradshaw), Springer-Verlag, Berlin Heidelberg, 1976
[9] Ibragimov, M. Kh., et al., Calculation of the Secondary Flow in Turbulent Fluid Flow, Fluid Dynamics, 4 (1972), 4, pp. 114-116
[10] Daschiel, G. M., Strategies to Reduce Friction Losses and Their Implications for the Energy Efficient Design of Internal Flow Domains, Ph. D. thesis, Karlsruher Institut fur Technologie (KIT), Karlsruhe, Germany, 2014
[11] Choi, H. S., Park, T. S., The Influence of Streamwise Vortices on Turbulent Heat Transfer in Rectangular Ducts with Various Aspect Ratios, Int. J. Heat Fluid Flow, 40 (2013), Apr., pp. 1-14
[12] Noorani, A., Particle-Laden Turbulent Wall-Bounded Flows in Moderately Complex Geometries, Ph. D. thesis, Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), Stockholm, Sweden, 2015
[13] Bradshaw, P., Turbulent Secondary Flows, Ann. Rev. Fluid Mech., 19 (1987), pp. 53-74
[14] Galleti, B., Bottaro, A., Large-Scale Secondary Structures in Duct Flow, J. Fluid Mech., 512 (2004), Aug., pp. 85-94
[15] Uhlmann, M., et al., Marginally Turbulent Flow in a Square Duct, J. Fluid Mech., 588 (2007), Oct., pp. 153-162
[16] Hoagland, L. C., Fully Developed Turbulent Flow in Straight Rectangular Ducts – Secondary Flow, Its Cause and Effect on the Primary Flow, Ph. D. thesis, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Mass., USA, 1960
[17] Prandtl, L., Turbulent Flow, NACA-TM-435, Washington, USA, 1927
[18] Gessner, F. B., Jones, J. B., On Some Aspects of Fully-Developed Turbulent Flow in Rectangular Channels, J. Fluid Mech., 23 (1965), 4, pp. 689-713
[19] Gessner, F. B., The Origin of Secondary Flow in Turbulent Flow along a Corner, J. Fluid Mech., 58 (1973), 1, pp. 1-25
[20] Nikora, V., Roy, A. G., Secondary Flows in Rivers: Theoretical Framework, Recent Advances, and Current Challenges, in: Gravel Bed Rivers: Processes, Tools, Environments (Eds. M. Church, et al.), John Wiley & Sons, Chichester, UK, 2012, pp. 3-22
[21] Speziale, C. G., On Turbulent Secondary Flows in Pipes of Noncircular Cross-Section, Int. J. Engng. Sci., 20 (1982), 7, pp. 863-872
[22] Oertel jr., H. (Ed.), Prandtl’s Essentials of Fluid Mechanics, Springer-Verlag, New York, 2004
[23] Rotta, J. C., Turbulente Stroemungen – Eine Einfuehrung in die Theorie und ihre Anwendung (in German), Universitaetsverlag Goettingen, Goettingen, Germany, 2010
[24] Deissler, R. G., Taylor, M. F., Analysis of Turbulent Flow and Heat Transfer in Noncircular Passages, NACA-TN-4384, Washington, USA, 1958
[25] Bradshaw, P., Complex Three-Dimensional Turbulent Flows, Proceedings, 8th Australasian Fluid Mechanics Conference, University of Newcastle, N.S.W., Australia, 1983, pp. K5.1-K5.7
[26] Brundrett, E., Baines, W. D., The Production and Diffusion of Vorticity in Duct Flow, J. Fluid Mech., 19 (1964), 3, pp. 375-394
[27] Perkins, H. J., The Formation of Streamwise Vorticity in Turbulent Flow, J. Fluid Mech., 44 (1970), 4, pp. 721-740
[28] Demuren, A. O., Rodi, W., Calculation of Turbulence-Driven Secondary Motion in Non-Circular Ducts, J. Fluid Mech., 140 (1984), HY8, pp. 189-222
[29] Nezu, I., Open-Channel Flow Turbulence and Its Research Prospect in the 21st Century, J. Hydraul. Eng., 131 (2005), 4, pp. 229-246
[30] Launder, B. E., Ying, W. M., Prediction of Flow and Heat Transfer in Ducts of Square Cross-Section, Heat Fluid Flow, 3 (1973), 2, pp. 115-121